Last week, we started a discussion on Anti-Mullerian Hormone on female reproduction. We gave an overview of what anti-mullerian hormone is; discussed its role on babies, female & male gender; and explained its role in female fertility. This week, we will be enlightened about how reproduction occurs in females, the functions of AMH on female reproduction and other hormones that can be used to determine the ovarian reserve.
HOW REPRODUCTION OCCURS IN FEMALES
The ova or oocytes are the egg cells produced by the ovaries. The oocytes are transferred directly into the fallopian tube, where they may be fertilized by a sperm. The fertilized egg is transferred to the uterus, where the uterine lining has expanded as a result of the reproductive cycle’s typical hormones. The fertilized egg can implant into the thicker uterine lining and develop further while inside the uterus. If the egg does not implant, the uterine lining is lost as part of menstrual flow. In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that keep the reproductive cycle going.
The female reproductive system gradually ceases to produce the female hormones required for the reproductive cycle to function during menopause. Menstrual cycles may become irregular or cease altogether at this point. The woman is termed menopausal one year after her menstrual cycles stop.
FUNCTION OF AMH ON FEMALE REPRODUCTION
If you and your partner are trying to start a family and are concerned about the possibility of decreased fertility, either because of your age or for any other reason, an AMH test may be advantageous. This appears to be a good indicator of the body’s remaining egg follicle reserve. If you have low AMH levels on your AMH blood test, it does not mean you are infertile; rather, it means your fertility has dropped but a high level of AMH means your chances of getting pregnant are higher.
Ovarian reserve can be affected by factors other than age, and in younger women, a low ovarian reserve may not signal poor oocyte quality. AMH levels must decrease with aging until they are undetectable during menopause. In this context, very low AMH is defined as AMH levels of less than 1.05 ng/ml, and undetectably low AMH levels are less than 0.16 ng/ml. A low level of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) can be an additional indicator of a problem with the quantity of a woman’s eggs.
If you have looked through any of the fertility information on the internet, you have probably come across some high FSH low AMH success stories, and many of them are naturally inspiring and increase hopes for anyone else seeking to conceive. These studies are frequently accompanied by suggestions for naturally increasing AMH and promoting ovarian health through food, herbs, supplements, and enhanced circulation to the reproductive system. These procedures, however, have not been scientifically validated. While there is no doubt that leading a healthy lifestyle that includes nutrition and exercise is beneficial to overall health and hence optimum fertility, reports on how to naturally boost AMH, as well as the different high FSH low AMH success tales, should be regarded with a healthy skepticism.
OTHER HORMONES THAT CAN DETERMINE THE OVARIAN RESERVE
Ovarian reserve can be determined in a variety of ways, including the AMH test. Other hormones that play a role in deciding whether or not you are fertile include:
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): This hormone regulates the menstrual cycle and stimulates egg cell synthesis by acting on the ovarian follicles.
- Luteinizing hormone (LH): Follicle maturation is controlled by this hormone. The ovary responds to an increase in LH levels by releasing one egg cell. The LH test can be used to identify whether a woman has achieved menopause and to assess ovulation.
- Oestradiol: This is the most important of the oestrogens. This hormone (also known as E2) can be tested to determine how well your ovaries are working. The test must be performed between the third and fifth days of the menstrual cycle.
Testing the levels of these hormones, in addition to the AMH measurement, aids clinicians in analysing a woman’s level of fertility and the possibility of natural conception. Another important point to remember about AMH testing is that it is a good indicator of the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. This is due to the fact that it determines the anticipated ovarian response to hormonal treatment. This is because it gives an assessment of the likely ovarian response to hormone treatment.
In conclusion, since the levels of AMH are a determinant in the quantity of the eggs remaining in a woman ovarian reserve, AMH can be regarded as both a pregnancy determinant hormone and as well as a fertility hormone. But we should not also neglect that the quality of your eggs is also important in achieving successful parenthood.