In the past edition, we defined Female Hypogonadism explaining the types, signs and symptoms, clinical features, causes and diagnosis of female hypogonadism. This week, we will conclude with more diagnosis, complications and treatment.

  • Hormone analysis –  
  • Sex hormone levels should also be examined if symptom of hypogonadism persists. A blood test will be required to determine levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the pituitary gland.
  • For females, the estrogen levels should be checked while in males, the testosterone level is measured. It is essential to perform these tests in the morning when the hormone levels are at their peak. Semen analysis may also be done in males to determine sperm count as hypogonadism may cause a decrease in sperm count.
  • It is essential to examine for high blood iron levels as this can have an impact on sex hormones.
  • Prolactin levels should also be checked. Prolactin is a hormone that promotes breast development and milk production in women.
  • The thyroid hormone levels may also be checked. Thyroid issues can cause symptoms that are similar to hypogonadism.
  • Imaging examinations – these tests may also help with diagnosis. An ultrasound creates an image of the ovaries using sound waves to detect any problems, such as ovarian cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome. To check for tumors in your pituitary gland, an MRI or CT scan may be conducted as well. The physician may conduct a physical examination to confirm that sexual development such as muscle mass, body hair and sexual organs is at the proper level with age.


Infertility is the most common complication of hypogonadism. Complications can arise as a result of a lack of hormones, such as:

  • Risk of breast cancer;
  • Heart attack or strokes;
  • Loss of muscle mass;
  • Alteration in bone mass;
  • Changes in mood.

Long-term oestrogen deficiency risks include an increased risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. The risk is greater with a younger age of onset. Breast cancer risk, on the other hand, may be slightly reduced.

Oestrogen has a key role in maintaining skin health. Oestrogen aids in the maintenance of skin thickness and collagen levels, as well as skin elasticity and moisture. It is also known to help with wound healing.


The treatment of female hypogonadism entails addressing the underlying cause. Treatment may involve:

  • Injection of GnRH
  • Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • Correction of diet and nutrition
  • Calcium and vitamin supplement
  • Oestrogen and progesterone containing oral contraceptives
  • Stress management

When possible, hypogonadism treatment focuses on the underlying pathology, assisting the woman in becoming fertile if desired, and preventing the long-term complications of increased cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and urogenital atrophy.

Women of reproductive age who have hypogonadism should in general, receive hormone replacement therapy. However, specialist input should be sought, as there are potential significant complications of hormone therapy. Hormone replacement therapy is primarily concerned with replacing estrogen, which your body no longer produces. Estrogen therapy is classified into two types:

  1. Systemic Hormone Therapy – systemic estrogen, which can be taken as a pill, ring, cream, skin patch, gel or spray, contains a higher dose of estrogen that is absorbed throughout the body.
  2. Low-dose Vaginal Estrogen Preparations – in the form of cream, tablet, or ring, reduces the amount of estrogen absorbed by the body.

What are the dangers of hormone replacement therapy?

Studies suggest that hormone replacement therapy with an estrogen-progestin pill increased the risk of certain serious condition. Subsequent research has indicated that these risks vary depending on:

  1. Age – However, if hormone therapy is initiated before the age of 60 or within the first ten years of menopause, the benefits appear to outweigh the risks.
  • Type of Hormone therapy – The risks of hormone therapy differ depending on whether estrogen is given alone or in combination with progestin, as well as the dose and type of estrogen used.
  • Medical history – Family history, personal medical history, history of cancer, heart disease, liver disease, stroke, blood clots, and osteoporosis are all important considerations when deciding the right hormone replacement therapy.


To stay healthy and active, both men and women must maintain an ideal weight, eat a healthy balanced diet, and exercise on a regular basis. Although most of the known causes of hypogonadism cannot be avoided, it is still beneficial to maintain a healthy active lifestyle throughout and incorporate regular exercise into your daily routine. Early detection and correct diagnosis are critical in order to stop the source of the problem before it causes further damage. You do not have to suffer for a long time if you have Hypogonadism, which is a treatable disease. With the right amount of treatment and the guidance of a medical expert, you can easily free yourself from the harsh effects of sex gland defects.

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