Fertility Issues with Males

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Every man is born with a macho instinct , that increases with age from early puberty and is heightened mid twenty as young adult until mid-thirties , when it begins to taper off. At this time many things may have occurred with your seed. Many men do not know, because it may not give you any particular symptoms , unless you are very observant. If you are sexually active, this may expose you to STD, is you are a careless and carefree misguided Trojan horse.

Reproduction (or making a baby) is a simple and natural experience for most couples. However, for some couples it is very difficult to conceive.
A man’s fertility generally relies on the quantity and quality of his sperm. If the number of sperm a man ejaculates is low or if the sperm are of a poor quality, it will be difficult, and sometimes impossible, for him to cause a pregnancy.
Male infertility is diagnosed when, after testing both partners, reproductive problems have been found in the male. It is estimated that one in 20 men has some kind of fertility problem with low numbers of sperm in his ejaculate. However, only about one in every 100 men has no sperm in his ejaculate.

Sexuality in men is relative. This is so because as some are have very normal sexual drive, others do not have any at all, while some men sow their wild oats carelessly.
Up to 15 percent of couples are infertile. This means they aren’t able to conceive a child even though they’ve had frequent, unprotected sexual intercourse for a year or longer. In up to half of these couples, male infertility plays a role. Despite the relative importance of infertility due to the male, infertility evaluations have traditionally focused on women, because women tend to seek gynecological care and because men often are reluctant to seek advice. The testes (testis: singular) are a pair of egg-shaped glands that sit in the scrotum next to the base of the penis on the outside of the body. The testes make sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. It takes about 70 days for sperm to become mature and able to fertilise an egg. When released from the testes, the sperm spend two to 10 days passing through the epididymis where they gain the vital ability to swim strongly (become ‘motile’), and to attach to and penetrate (get into) the egg.

Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices and other factors can play a role in causing male infertility. Not being able to conceive a child can be stressful and frustrating, but a number of male infertility treatments are available. The main sign of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child. There may be no other obvious signs or symptoms. In some cases, however, an underlying problem such as an inherited disorder, hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle, or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm causes signs and symptoms.
There are symptoms
Although most men with male infertility do not notice symptoms other than inability to conceive a child, signs and symptoms associated with male infertility include:
• Problems with sexual function — for example, difficulty with ejaculation or small volumes of fluid ejaculated, reduced sexual desire or difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)
• Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area
• Recurrent respiratory infections
• Inability to smell
• Abnormal breast growth
• Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality
•    Having a lower than normal sperm count (fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate)re are symptoms which may and not be obvious.
You may need to see a doctor if
When you have tried to get your wife pregnant , and you are  unable after a year of unprotected sex, you should see a doctor.
• Have erection or ejaculation problems, low sex drive, or other problems with sexual function
• Have pain, discomfort, a lump or swelling in the testicle area
• Have a history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems
• Have had groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery.
A fertile man should  be able to do these
1. You must produce healthy sperm. Initially, this involves the growth and formation of the male reproductive organs during puberty. At least one of your testicles must be functioning correctly, and your body must produce testosterone and other hormones to trigger and maintain sperm production.
2. Sperm have to be carried into the semen. Once sperm are produced in the testicles, delicate tubes transport them until they mix with semen and are ejaculated out of the penis.
3. There needs to be enough sperm in the semen. If the number of sperm in your semen (sperm count) is low, it decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner’s egg. A low sperm count is fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or fewer than 39 million per ejaculate.
4. Sperm must be functional and able to move. If the movement (motility) or function of your sperm is abnormal, the sperm may not be able to reach or penetrate your partner’s egg.
5. Causes include medical anomarlies and environmental causes.
Male infertility has many causes–from hormonal imbalances, to physical problems, to psychological and/or behavioral problems.  Moreover, fertility reflects a man’s “overall” health.  Men who live a healthy lifestyle are more likely to produce healthy sperm.
• Varicocele.  A varicocele is a swelling of the veins that drain the testicle. It’s the most common reversible cause of male infertility. Although the exact reason that varicoceles cause infertility is unknown, it may be related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation. Varicoceles result in reduced quality of the
Sperm
Infection. Some infections can interfere with sperm production or sperm health or can cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm. These include inflammation of the epididymis testicles and some sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea or HIV. Although some infections can result in permanent testicular damage, most often sperm can still be retrieved.
• Ejaculation issues. Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of emerging out the tip of the penis
• Antibodies that attack sperm. Anti-sperm antibodies are immune system cells that mistakenly identify sperm as harmful invaders and attempt to eliminate them.
• Tumors. Cancers and nonmalignant tumors can affect the male reproductive organs directly, through the glands that release hormones related to reproduction, such as the pituitary gland, or through unknown causes. Undescended testicles. In some males, during fetal development one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the sac that normally contains the testicles (scrotum). Decreased fertility is more likely in men who have had this condition.
• Hormone imbalances. Infertility can result from disorders of the testicles themselves or an abnormality affecting other hormonal systems including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes.
• Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many different tubes carry sperm. They can be blocked due to various causes, including inadvertent injury from surgery, prior infections, trauma or abnormal development, such as with cystic fibrosis or similar inherited conditions.
• Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter’s syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (instead of one X and one Y) — cause abnormal development of the male reproductive organs.
• Problems with sexual intercourse. These can include trouble keeping or maintaining an erection sufficient for sex (erectile dysfunction), premature ejaculation, painful intercourse, anatomical abnormalities such as having a urethral opening beneath the penis), or psychological or relationship problems that interfere with sex..
• Certain medications. Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications, some ulcer drugs and certain other medications can impair sperm production and decrease male fertility.
• Prior surgeries. Certain surgeries may prevent you from having sperm in your                             prostate surgeries, and large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and rectal cancers, among others.
Environmental causes
•    Overexposure to certain environmental elements such as heat, toxins and chemicals can reduce sperm production or sperm function. Specific causes include:
•    Industrial chemicals. Extended exposure to benzenes, toluene, xylene, pesticides, herbicides, organic solvents, painting materials and lead may contribute to low sperm counts.
•    Heavy metal exposure. Exposure to lead or other heavy metals also may cause infertility.
•    Radiation or X-rays. Exposure to radiation can reduce sperm production, though it will often eventually return to normal. With high doses of radiation, sperm production can be permanently reduced.
•    Overheating the testicles. Elevated temperatures impair sperm production and function. Although studies are limited and are inconclusive, frequent use of saunas or hot tubs may temporarily impair your sperm count.
• Sitting for long periods, wearing tight clothing or working on a laptop computer for long stretches of time also may increase the temperature in your scrotum and may slightly reduce sperm production.
Health, lifestyle and other causes
• Illicit drug use. Anabolic steroids taken to stimulate muscle strength and growth can cause the testicles to shrink and sperm production to decrease. Use of cocaine or marijuana may temporarily reduce the number and quality of your sperm as well.
• Alcohol use. Drinking alcohol can lower testosterone levels, cause erectile dysfunction and decrease sperm production. Liver disease caused by excessive drinking also may lead to fertility problems.
• Tobacco smoking. Men who smoke may have a lower sperm count than do those who don’t smoke. Secondhand smoke also may affect male fertility.
• Emotional stress. Stress can interfere with certain hormones needed to produce sperm. Severe or prolonged emotional stress, including problems with fertility, can affect your sperm count.
•    Weight. Obesity can impair fertility in several ways, including directly impacting sperm themselves as well as by causing hormone changes that reduce male fertility.
• Certain occupations including welding or those involving prolonged sitting, such as truck driving, may be associated with a risk of infertility.
Treatments include
:   Taking medications to help increase sperm production
Taking antibiotics to heal an infection
Taking hormones to improve hormone imbalance
Avoiding taking long hot showers, using hot tubs or saunas
Wearing looser underwear such as boxer shorts versus jockey shorts
Sperm production may also improve by taking clinically proven supplements.  Anything that increases the number of healthy sperm increases the chances of conception. Many health food stores and vitamin shops offer male fertility supplements
Artificial insemination is an option if the man’s sperm count is low. In this procedure, sperm is collected through multiple ejaculations.  They are then manually placed in the female’s uterus or fallopian tubes.
In vitro fertilization is another option that can be used to overcome male infertility factors. In this procedure, the sperm and egg are fertilized in a laboratory after which the fertilized egg is placed in the female’s uterus.
If tests show that there is no sperm production or that other related problems are present, donor sperm can be used to help facilitate conception. In this procedure, donor sperm are obtained from a sperm bank and placed inside the female’s uterus or fallopian tubes through artificial insemination.
Can male infertility be prevented?
There is usually nothing that can be done to prevent male infertility caused by genetic problems or illness. However, there are actions that men can take to decrease the possibility of infertility.
These include
Avoiding sexually transmitted diseases
Avoiding illicit drugs
Avoiding radiation when possible
Avoiding exposure to toxic substances
Avoiding heavy or frequent use of alcohol
Observing good personal hygiene and health practices
Avoiding long, hot baths, hot tubs or saunas
Wearing loose-fitting underwear.