Chiemelie Ezeobi writes that the recently marked 2019 International Day of the Girl themed “GirlForce: Unscripted and Unstoppable” was quite instructive in the face of the burgeoning challenges facing the girl-child, ranging from sexual violence to gender academic disparity, early marriage and even female genital mutilation
“We need to uphold the equal rights, voices and influence of girls in our families, communities and nations. Girls can be powerful agents of change, and nothing should keep them from participating fully in all areas of life.” That was the apt and timely clarion made by the UN Secretary-General, António Guterres.
Since 2012, October 11 has been marked as the International Day of the Girl. The day aims to highlight and address the needs and challenges the girl-child faces, while promoting girls’ empowerment and the fulfillment of their human rights.
This year, the theme “GirlForce: Unscripted and Unstoppable”, looked at the progress made since the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. According to the United Nations (UN), the theme was targeted at celebrating girls everywhere as they inspire, break boundaries and take charge of their own future.
Noting that in 1995, before the girls of today were even born, the fourth World Conference on Women made history for the women’s rights agenda with the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action was adopted, the most visionary blueprint for the empowerment of women and girls, the UN added that it was to celebrate all of the achievements by, with and for girls since the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the passage of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990, that the theme was coined.
However, they noted that despite these achievements, that was not to say that many of the commitments made to girls were fulfilled. “Each year, 12 million girlsunder 18 are married; 130 million girlsworldwide are still out of school; And approximately 15 million adolescent girlsaged 15-19 have experience forced sex.
“The more than 1.1 billion girls in the world have had enough. This year on International Day of the Girl, we’re sharing the stories of girls around the world are calling to uphold the commitments made nearly 25 years ago, and create a better future for all”.
Their clarion call harped on the fact that as they approach the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Platform and Declaration for action, on this International Day of the Girl-child, “let us renew our commitment to invest in girls’ health, education and safety and put an end to harmful practices that hold girls back from reaching their full potential”.
According to the UN body, nearly 25 years ago, some 30,000 women and men from nearly 200 countries arrived in Beijing, China for the Fourth World Conference on Women, determined to recognise the rights of women and girls as human rights. The conference culminated in the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: the most comprehensive policy agenda for the empowerment of women.
In the years following, women pressed this agenda forward, leading global movements on issues ranging from sexual and reproductive health rights to equal pay. More girls today are attending and completing school, fewer are getting married or becoming mothers while still children, and more are gaining the skills they need to excel in the future world of work.
Today, these movements have expanded. They are being organised by and for adolescent girls, and tackling issues like child marriage, education inequality, gender-based violence, climate change, self-esteem, and girls’ rights to enter places of worship or public spaces during menstruation. Girls are proving they are unscripted and unstoppable.
UN Declaration of Child Rights
Also tilted at protection the rights of the child, of which girls are included, The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, sometimes known as the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child was borne.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, is an international document promoting child rights, drafted by Eglantyne Jebband adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, and adopted in an extended form by the United Nations in 1959.
Thus, the UN adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child on November 20, 1959 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child on November 20, 1989 which harped on the fact that the child must be given the means requisite for its normal development, both materially and spiritually.
Despite these existing documents to protect the rights of the child, including the female child, so many challenges have hampered its 100 per cent fulfillment.
One of such challenges faced by the girl-child in Nigeria is early marriage. Nigeria has one of the highest child marriage prevalence rates in the world. In Nigeria, 39 per cent of girls are married off before age 18 and 16 per cent are married before they turn 15 years old.
However, according to the NDHS 2013, the number of Nigerian girls that are married before their 18th birthday is as high as 58.2 per cent. The prevalence of child marriage varies widely across the country, but figures are as high as 76 per cent in the North-west region, compared with 10 per cent in the South-east.
Ending child marriage requires strategies for girls’ empowerment, social and cultural norms change, legal reform, and policy action. The Child Rights Act of 2003 set the national legal minimum age of marriage at 18 years but it is yet to be ef- fectively implemented. There are 12 Northern states that have yet to pass the bill and agree on the minimum age of marriage. To be effective, state assemblies must take the necessary meas- ures to implement the Child Rights Act, including concrete steps to execute the minimum age of mar-riage. Along with the Child Rights Act, Ni- geria at national and sub-national levels needs to fast track the im-plementation of the Universal Basic Education act with special emphasis on girl education.
Also, according to UNICEF Nigeria has the largest number of child brides in Africa with more than 23 million girls and women who were married as children, most of them from poor and rural communities. While data suggests a decline of nine per cent in the prevalence of child marriage since 2003, and a projected further decrease of six per cent by 2030, Nigeria’s rapid population growth means that the number of child brides will in fact increase by more than one million by 2030 and double by 2050.
Female Genital Mutilation
According to reports, just over one in four girls and women (27 per cent) aged 15-49 years have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), a rate that is still lower in Nigeria than in many countries.
However, due to its large population, Nigeria has the third highest absolute number of women and girls (19.9 million) who have undergone FGM/C worldwide. While prevalence continues to drop, with a projected further five-point decline by 2030, the population explosion is expected to result in the numbers of those affected to remain unchanged by 2030.
FGM otherwise known as circumcision is an invasive and painful surgical procedure that is often performed without anesthetic on the girl-child before puberty. It is an old traditional practice still being practiced in parts of Nigeria, making it one of the 27 countries in Africa where FGM is still being celebrated.
In this circumcision, the prepuce of the girl child is removed and their clitoris may be partially or completely removed and in some cultures, they go as far as removing the labia minora while the labia majora are sewn together, covering the urethra and vagina. At the same time, a small opening is retained for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid.
But despite a law criminalising FGM, zero enforcement has been its bane. As far back as 2002, there were talks by the Nigerian legislature to outlaw FGM and impose a two year jail term for offenders, although it allows for an option of a fine of 100 dollars or the imposition of both a fine and incarceration of six months.
Finally, when the bill which is called ‘Violence against Persons (Prohibition)’ was passed, it seeks to prohibit female circumcision or genital mutilation, forceful ejection from home and harmful widowhood practices. However, despite a law clearly stating the government’s position against the practice, lack of enforcement has been the bane of it. The apathy of those that should enforce this ban has been declared one of the main issues why the practice is still popular. Also, the lack of awareness of the dangers posed by FGM is another problem.
So, with the law criminalising FGM, it definitely behooves the executive to enforce the laws passed by the legislature, even as community leaders should be engaged to help raise awareness on the dangers of the age-old cultural practice.
Gender Disparity in Schools
In terms of equality in academic pursuit, the girl-child often comes in lacking. Although education is a basic human rightand has been recognised as such since the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, there is still an existing gender disparity that faces the girl-child. In most communities, the male child is often bestowed on the privilege to education as against the girl-child. Some factors might be responsible for this- cultural and socio-economic reasons- that prevent the girl-child from having adequate access to education.
Culturally, the girl-child is made to stay at home and learn to tend to her family instead of attending school. Another reason is that the Nigerian tradition attaches higher value to a man than a woman, whose place is believed to be the kitchen.
The socio-economic factors that have prevented the girl-child from education on the other hand boils down to poverty, early marriage, child labour, as well as some structural and institutional factors.
One of the traditional means of socialisation of children is through trading. However, the introduction of young girls into street trading increases the vulnerabilities of the girls to sexual harassment. Sexual abuse of young girls in Nigeria is linked to child labour.
Underage street hawking is a universal phenomenon that is not only common to Nigeria, as it is practiced in both industrialised and developing countries of the world. However, child labour, of which underaged street hawking features prominently, constitutes a serious problem.
From Kano to Anambra, Lagos, Rivers and other states of the federation, the social anomaly seems to be on the increase despite measures put on ground to ameliorate it.
Without a doubt, the consequences of underaged street hawking are far-reaching. It has a devastating effect on the education of children who practice it as it distorts government policies on education due to high rate of out of school children. Sometimes, the underage street hawkers are drawn into delinquent actions that may even dovetail to petty robbery and then graduate into robbery.
Also, majority of such underage girls who hawk are at the mercy of rapists and traffickers. Sometimes, these child hawkers are exposed to health challenges, accidents, stress, kidnapping, sexual abuse, and even death.
Although child sexual abuse in Nigeriais an offence under several sections of chapter 21 of the country’s criminal code, a survey by Positive Action for Treatment Access, revealed that over 31.4 percent of girls said that their first sexual encounter had been rape or forced sex of some kind.
Violence against children occurs in homes, families, schools, communities and other places where children should feel safe. Again, according to UNICEF, abuse in all its forms are a daily reality for many Nigerian children and only a fraction ever receive help.
They posited that six out of every 10 children experience some form of violence – one in four girls and 10 per cent of boys have been victims of sexual violence. Of the children who reported violence, fewer than five out of a 100 received any form of support. The drivers of violence against children (VAC) are rooted in social norms, including around the use of violent discipline, violence against women and community beliefs about witchcraft, all of which increase children’s vulnerability.
Affirmation for the Girl-child in Nigeria
Across Nigeria, the day was celebrated by different states, groups and women bodies, all making affirmations and pledges towards the protection of the girl-child.
Speaking on the day and what it portends, President Muhammadu Buhari said: “Nigeria needs stricter laws to protect girls and women from abuse. I very much welcome the National Assembly’s proposed amendments to our laws, following the recent high-profile revelations of sexual abuse in our institutions of higher learning.
“I acknowledge that we need to do more as a country to address incidents of sexual violence and sexual abuse in our schools; and all forms of discrimination, human trafficking and cultural practices that violate women’s rights.
“I urge our law enforcement agencies and school administrators to take up such cases with every seriousness, and ensure that perpetrators face the consequences of their actions. The practice of shaming and silencing victims must also be discouraged by all.”
Wife of the President, Aisha Buhari said: “Today, I join millions of girls around the world to celebrate this year’s international day of the girl-child, the theme for this year’s celebration is ‘GirlForce: Unscripted and Unstoppable.
“I am happy to note the progress that has been made in the area of activism by girls to protect their gender. I want to state that more needs to be done especially to address gender-based violence which seems to be more pronounced recently and all hands must be on deck to achieve this.”
Former Vice President, Atiku Abubakar said:
“The girl child is a prized asset that should be nurtured to fruition. On this #DayofTheGirl, I call for concerted effort to eliminate all obstacles, including the right to education that infringes on the rights of the #GirlChild to achieve their full potentials.”
On her part, the MinisterofWomen Affairs, Mrs Pauline Tallen said educating the girl-child is the key to unlocking access to economic and social development of Nigeria.
Expressing concern about the high population of out of school children across the country, she said: “The ministry has inaugurated a technical Working Group aimed at reducing 50 per cent of child marriage by the year 2025, and a National Strategy Document has also been developed to ensure zero child marriage in Nigeria by 2035.”
The minister who listed challenges faced by the girl child in the society to include being victims of physical and sexual abuse, human trafficking, child labour and denial to rights of inheritance, therefore called for total reorientation on the values of the girl-child, especially in education and skills acquisition, which she said would aid in empowering them and enable them to succeed in their endeavours.
Also, stating that 24 states had signed the Child Rights Act(2003) and urged the remaining 12 states to do the same for the benefit of the girls and the nation at large she said the benefits would lead to poverty reduction, better health outcomes, economic growth, reduced rates of child mortality and malnutrition, adding that would also help girls to achieve their potential.
She therefore encouraged parents, stakeholders to value the girl child to enable them to access quality education, protect them from all forms of abuse and molestation.
FCT Minister of State, Ramatu Tijanni, on her part stressed the need to educate the girl-child toward identifying her potential dangers, sexual predators and seek help during distress. According to her, the ability of the girl-child to identify the dangers and potential sexual predators will aid in reducing their vulnerability and expose the culprits.
She further urged religious and community leaders to play vital roles in educating children, especially girls to enable them to perform well in society like their counterparts in other nations.
Also, the Director-General, National Centre for Women Development, Mrs. Mary Ekpere-Eta, encouraged stakeholders to play vital roles in protecting girls to ensure they received a quality education and proper hygiene, adding that access to quality education for girls would further raise their consciousness, expose them to knowledge and skills empowerment.
The National President, National Council of Women’s Societies (NCWS) Mrs. Gloria Shoda, on the other hand, urging stakeholders to promote the rights of the girl-child in Nigeria, noted that any support to the girl-child would go a long way to change her destiny, especially orphaned girl-child by providing for comprehensive care, including food, clothing, education and health care.
While stressing the need to empower the girl-child through training and skill acquisition to help them become self-reliant and live better lives, she advised the girl-child to pursue education with vigor to enable them to achieve success in the future.
Former Minister of Education, Oby Ezekwesili said: “The pressure that girls face is so much more today than what we faced in our time.
I feel for our girls and ask that we collectively
do right by them. Families, government and businesses all need to pay more attention to our girls – all the time and not just on a #DayOfTheGirl.
“A lot remains, but one good thing is that our Girls -especially in Nigeria- now have many more female role models showing them how to be #UnscriptedAndUnstoppable. That way, our Girls will no longer just “survive”. They will thrive as we collectively empower them.”
What Needs to be Done
According to Save the Children.org, in its publication tagged ‘Changing the story of the Nigerian Girl-child’ what needs to be done is a tripartite process that should involve the government, civil society organisations (CSOs) and development partners.
For the government at national and sub-national levels, the organisation said they must take the lead, adding that the states that have not passed the Child Rights Act need to do so immediately and start implementation.
They further posited that since the Universal Basic Education Act 2004 14 mandates free and compulsory education for all children up to junior secondary level in Nigeria, government at national and sub-national level must ensure the effective implementation of this law as a key first step towards reducing early marriage.
They noted that government also needs to ensure that quality teaching and learning are taking place in all primary and junior secondary schools, as well as remove all barriers that make it difficult for young girls to go to school, including the costs associated with school attendance such as uniforms, extra school-imposed levies and transportation costs as schools must also be sensitive to cultural norms.
For the CSOs, they charged them to organise themselves by putting continuous pressure on government at national and sub-national level regarding the implementation of free and compulsory education, as well as monitor progress and tracking of resources to ensure accountability.
Also, community leaders needs to ensure that community structures continue to respond positively to all efforts encouraging girls to stay in school until at least the completion of junior secondary education.
To the development partners and donors, they charged them to put the girl-child development at the center of their development efforts, knowing that doing so will lead to rapid and lasting change.
They are also to collaborate with government at national and sub-national levels to take on these important issues, just as continual production of evidence and learning will also need to be supported by development partners.