Why You are Unable to Get Pregnant

By Bobo Bode -Kayode
Pregnancy is the desire of all humans, this being in line with the command given to us by God, at creation , to be fruitful and multiply.  You are pregnant when you have an embryo or fetus developing in your uterus. If any of these signs and symptoms apply to you, there is a good chance you are pregnant. The first symptom is a must , but there is a tiny ratio that may not miss their period, but are actually pregnant, while  the others are possibilities. In other words, if your breasts are tender but your period has come, you are not pregnant – you must have a missed period.

Signs of pregnancy
1.    Missed period.
2.    Nausea with or without vomiting.
3.    Tiredness.
4.    Dizziness.
5.    Breast changes.
6.    Breast tenderness.
7.    Frequent urination.

Nausea generally affects pregnant women during the first three to four months of the pregnancy. Tiredness tends to be more acute during the first and last three months.
The onset of pregnancy is when the male sperm penetrates an egg and fertilizes it. This usually happens in the woman’s fallopian tube after ovulation , when the matured egg was released from one of her ovaries.
Pregnancy can be detected by the presence of HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the woman’s blood or urine.
Therefore, if you have been trying to get pregnant for about 12 months, without using any contraception, you are indeed having issues with getting pregnant. If this is your first attempt, then it is primary infertility. If you have had previous pregnancy, then it is secondary infertility.  A couple may also have a fertility problem if they have had 3 or more miscarriages losing pregnancies.  A man or woman who has already had a child can also become infertile. A problem can develop after the last child was born. Sometimes the problem is not the man’s or the woman’s alone but a combination of the two. And sometimes both partners seem to be healthy and no doctor or test can find out what is causing the problem.
The inability to get pregnant, is actually a challenging time, and this can manifest for certain reasons.  Millions of women face infertility. If you are having trouble getting pregnant or staying pregnant, you are not alone. The good news is that many women with fertility problems go on to have babies.

Possible causes:
There are many factors that can cause infertility, including a lack of regular ovulation, a low sperm count, low sperm motility, early menopause and anatomical problems, such as blocked Fallopian tubes and problems with the uterine cavity. In some couples, there is no obvious reason, which is called unexplained infertility. There is also the fact that it becomes harder to get pregnant as you age. As women get older, both the quality and quantity  left in their ovaries diminishes, so the chance of each ovulation leading to a healthy egg that can lead to a viable pregnancy is diminished. Rates of female infertility seem to be on the rise.  It maybe because more women are waiting until they are older to have children. However, infertility can be a problem for any woman. Infertility can affect any woman , younger or older, single or in a relationship with a man or a woman.
There are many reasons a woman might experience infertility. These include
• not ovulating (releasing eggs)
• blocked fallopian tubes so sperm can’t meet the egg
• eggs are poor quality
• shape of the uterus makes it hard for a fertilized egg to implant.
• Endometriosis.
In some cases, there is no known reason for someone’s infertility. This is called unexplained infertility. This can be a very frustrating diagnosis. But even if you are diagnosed with unexplained infertility, you still have treatment options to consider.
Risks factors: Certain things may increase a woman’s risk of infertility. They include
• a history of  sexual transmitted diseases
•  health problems that can cause hormonal changes
• age — being older than 35
• being overweight or underweight
• chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer
• environmental toxins, like lead and pesticides
• excessive drug or alcohol use
• poor diet
• smoking cigarettes.
What causes your inability?
• Infertility in a woman
The main causes of infertility in a woman are:
1.    Scarring in the tubes or inside the womb. Scarring, or thickened rough skin, in the tube can prevent the egg from moving through the tube, or the sperm from reaching the egg. Scarring in the womb can prevent the fertilized egg from attaching to the wall of the womb. Sometimes a woman gets scarring but does not know it because she does not feel ill. But years later she learns she is infertile. Scarring can be caused by:
• an infection from an untreated STI that travels up into the womb or tubes (pelvic inflammatory disease or PID), or from tuberculosis (TB) in the pelvis.
• unsafe abortion or problems in childbirth that caused damage or infection in the womb.
• unclean conditions when an intrauterine device (IUD)—a small device implanted inside the womb to prevent pregnancy—was put in, which caused an infection.
• problems from an operation on the vagina, womb, tubes, or ovaries.
2.  Problems with ovulation. If an infertile woman’s monthly bleedings are less than 21 days apart, or more than 35 days apart, she may not produce eggs. This can be caused by her body not making enough hormones, or not making them at the right time. Sometimes this happens as a woman gets older and is close to the end of her cycle of monthly bleeding (menopause). Some women do not produce eggs if they gain or lose weight very quickly, or if they are too fat or too thin, or if they become ill.
3. She has growths (fibroids) in her womb. Fibroids are tumors that do not cause
cancer, but they can cause a miscarriage.
4. Stress.
When you mention to friends and family that you are trying, you will almost guaranteed to hear someone say, Just relax and it will happen.  Easier said than done. Stress, good or bad, is going to take its toll on you both physically and mentally.
5. Sleep deprivation
we know that catching an adequate number of sleep makes that morning chores bearable, but here’s another reason to get yourself to bed before the wee hours. Sleep deprivation puts stress on the body and when you are tired, you do not work or coordinate well. People who do not get enough sleep, their immune systems are down a little bit and they’re more likely to get infections, which will affect the reproductive cycle.
6. Weight issues
A woman who is underweight or overweight may have some difficulty conceiving a baby. An undernourished body may not ovulate properly. On the other hand, excess weight can have a significant effect on fertility. Just being over your ideal weight decreases your chance of getting pregnant even if you are ovulating regularly. The further you stray above 25 on the Body Mass Index, the worse it gets. Maintaining a healthy diet and developing a reasonable exercise routine will do wonders for your mind and body.
7. Cycle confusion
A lot of women don’t understand their own cycles. Most of us were taught the typical 28-day cycle but every woman is different and cycles vary in length. The biggest thing is timing. We teach women that they ovulate two weeks before your period. Most people think that it is two weeks after, but that’s only if you have a four-week cycle. It is better you monitor and have sex at the right time.  The fact that sperm can live for three days in the cervix, means that you do not have to have sex on the day of ovulation , it could be the day before. We also find that a lot of people do not know that lubricant decreases sperm motility and transfer, so you shouldn’t use lubricant when you’re trying to get pregnant.

Infertility in man:
The main causes of infertility in a man are:
1. He does not produce enough sperm, Oligospermia, or  complete absence , azospermia.
2. His testicles do not make healthy sperm. This can happen if he wears tight clothing that press his testicles close to his body, or if he works in a hot area, such as near boilers, furnaces, or engines—especially if he drives for many hours without a break. This can also happen if he sits all day, or sits for a long time in a hot bath before having sex.
3. He cannot ejaculate because he has scars in his tubes from a sexually transmitted infection (STI), or he has a spinal cord injury.
Causes in man & woman :
1. Illnesses such as mumps, diabetes, tuberculosis, and malaria.
2. Drinking alcohol, smoking or chewing tobacco, or using drugs.
3. Malnutrition, too much stress, overwork, or exposure to some chemicals.

What do i do ?
The first thing is for you and your partner to agree to see a specialist. Who would ask you series of questions, and run some investigations. The kind of treatment you get will depend on the problem. For example, if you aren’t having regular menstrual cycles, you might be given fertility medications to encourage regular ovulation. If your Fallopian tubes are blocked, then you’ll likely go straight to IVF where the egg and sperm are combined in a lab and then transferred to the uterus. If there is a problem with the sperm, the doctor might recommend semen insemination, where the best sperm is concentrated and injected into the uterine cavity. In cases where the quality of sperm is very low, you might be offered a type of IVF called intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where one sperm is forcibly injected into the egg. Depending on the scenario, these treatments can also involve donor sperm, donor eggs or a gestational carrier. It is important that you are well informed on the course of treatments available to you.