Frequent Urination

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Frequent urination is the need to urinate more than you normally would. The urge can strike suddenly and can cause you to lose control of your bladder. It can feel uncomfortable, like your bladder is extremely full. This is also referred to as having an overactive bladder. A recent study carried out by researcher, concluded that urinating every two hours or more is considered to be frequent urination. It is your urge to urinate more often than usual. Urgent urination is a sudden, strong urge to urinate, along with discomfort in your bladder.
Frequent urination may occur both day and night, or it may be noticeable only during the night and called nocturia. Frequent urination can affect your sleep, work and general well-being.
Frequent urination can be caused by a variety of different disorders. It is a typical symptom of a UTI [urinary tract infection], prostate problems and diabetes are other characteristic conditions that lead to frequent urination. In some cases, bladder cancer and dysfunction as well as other medications may also bring about too frequent urination. Enlargement of the prostate and drinking too much before bedtime may cause nocturia.
The anatomy of the human bladder and the adjoining tubes attaching to the kidneys, makes the likely causes fairly easy to understand. Frequent urination may be caused by diseases affecting the urinary tract at any level. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), the bladder, and the duct through which urine flows from the bladder out of the body (urethra).
There are certain common factors, that could be linked to frequent urination . These include :
1.    Infection, disease, injury or irritation of the bladder
2.    Conditions that increase urine production
3.    Changes in muscles, nerves or other tissues affecting bladder function
4.    Certain cancer treatments
5.    Drugs or beverages that increase urine production.
These are normal things we do, that would ordinarily increase urine production.
Therefore as a result of these, there are some signs that you may also experience, such as :
•    Pain or discomfort during urination
•    A strong urge to urinate
•    Difficulty urinating
•    Loss of bladder control
•    Unusual urine color.
The symptoms experienced in men and women could be different, and it is a pointer to the underlying disease.
Specific diseases, conditions or other factors that can result in frequent urination include
Pregnancy  , vaginitis, overactive bladder,
kidney infection, diuretics[ water retention],
consumption  in  excess of total fluids, alcohol, caffeine,
prostatitis ,   benign prostatic hyperplasia, diabetes,
urinary tract infection, urinary incontinence, bladder stones, and believe it or not…. Anxiety.
1.    •  Bladder infections (the most common cause in women and children)
2.    •  Urinary incontinence
3.    •  Noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia—the most common cause in men over 50)
4.    •  Stones in the urinary tract.
The following sign indicate, that you see your doctor as quickly as possible.
•    Blood in your urine
•    Red or dark brown urine
•    Painful urination
•    Pain in your side, lower abdomen or groin
•    Difficulty urinating or emptying your bladder
•    A strong urge to urinate
•    Loss of bladder control
•    Fever.
It is quite normal that the diagnosis for men could be different from women, because of the different anatomies. [ genital and urinary structure].  But test common to both genders are,
With men :
There are various diagnostic tests that your doctor may use to determine condition and the causes of the condition.
1.    Often times, a physical examination will be performed first, this may include an abdominal, pelvic and/or rectal examination.
2.     Blood tests may also be conducted to establish renal and thyroid function levels as well as plasma levels.
3.    Analysis of the urine will help determine if a UTI, exists or if there is risk of diabetes or hyperthyroidism.
4.

Overactive bladder
This condition is common in One out of six patients, who are usually over 40 years old. Frequent urination is a symptom of an overactive bladder, which can be caused by:
•    weak pelvic muscles
•    nerve damage
•    being overweight
•    lack of estrogen (common after menopause).
It is then important for you to probe :
• When did this symptom begin?
• How often do you urinate?
• What symptoms are you experiencing?
It is expected , that you will be ask you for a urine sample and check it for bacteria and blood.  A  negative result wil then point to the fact that , you’ll likely need to get an abdominal or pelvic ultrasound to check for anything abnormal in the bladder. If the ultrasound test is inconclusive, your doctor may order more invasive tests, such as a cystoscopy to detect  tumors or obstructions.

Treatment
Treatment for frequent urination depends on the cause. It is normal , to first treat the primary disease responsible for frequent urination, such as diabetes. If an infection is at fault,  then you will be will prescribed  antibiotics for getting rid of the infection.
Medications that control the muscle spasms in the bladder can help reduce urinary incontinence, which is loss of bladder control. Your doctor also may suggest doing pelvic exercises, or bladder retraining exercises, to help delay urination.

Help your self
You can take some steps to reduce your likelihood of developing frequent urination. Your best defense is to stop smoking and maintain a healthy weight. Limit your caffeine and alcohol intake.
Constipation can also contribute to frequent urination by putting pressure on the bladder, so increase your fiber intake to maintain regularity.
Seek instruct  on the proper way to perform pelvic exercises. These can strengthen your pelvic floor.

Urinary Tract Infection [UTI]
UTIs can develop anywhere in the urinary system, but they most often occur in the bladder and urethra. They’re more common in women than men because females have a shorter urethra, allowing bacteria to travel more easily to the bladder.
The need to urinate frequently, pain or burning when urinating, strong-smelling urine, and lower abdominal pain are symptoms of UTI.
As the infection progresses, you may experience:
•    fever
•    chills
•    loss of bladder control
•    nausea.

Diagnosis and treatment
The most common test is to do a urine microscopy and culture. The infecting organism is then cleared using prescribed antibiotics.

Key points for much older people
Older men often urinate frequently because the prostate usually enlarges with age.  In older women, frequent urination is also more common because of many factors, such as weakening of the pelvic supporting tissues after childbirth and the loss of estrogen after menopause. Both older men and older women may be more likely to take diuretics, so these drugs may contribute to excessive urination. Older people with excessive urination often need to urinate at night (nocturia). Nocturia can contribute to sleep problems and to falls, especially if a person is rushing to the bathroom or if the area is not well lit.