Family Health

It is not unusual for you to experience a burning pain and uneasiness in you lower abdomen and urinary tract. This could at times be frequent and with  drops of urine at a time. This occurrence is commonly called urinary tract infection. UTI. This presentation is not limited to these symptoms and could vary depending  on the cause.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.
Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than men are. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to your kidneys.
Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place.
Lower UTIs are common and aren’t usually a cause for major concern. Upper UTIs can be serious if left untreated, as they could damage the kidneys or spread to the bloodstream.

Common symptoms include
Urinary tract infections don’t always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do they may include:
• A strong, persistent urge to urinate
• A burning sensation when urinating
• Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
• Urine that appears cloudy
• Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine
• Strong-smelling urine
• Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone
UTIs may be overlooked or mistaken for other conditions in older adults.

Types of UTI
There are various types of UTI, depending on the site of the infection . These include:
Each type of UTI may result in more-specific signs and symptoms, depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.
Part of urinary tract affected  / Signs and symptoms
• Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis) : Upper back and side (flank) pain . High fever .Shaking and chills
Nausea .Vomiting
• Bladder (cystitis) : Pelvic pressure ,Lower abdomen discomfort ,Frequent, painful urination ,Blood in urine .
• Urethra (urethritis) : Burning with urination ,Discharge.

Possible causes
Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.
The most common UTIs occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.
• Infection of the bladder (cystitis). This type of UTI is usually caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), a type of bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, sometimes other bacteria are responsible. Sexual intercourse may lead to cystitis, but you don’t have to be sexually active to develop it. All women are at risk of cystitis because of their anatomy — specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
•    Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. Also, because the female urethra is close to the vagina, sexually transmitted infections, such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma, can cause urethritis.

Risk factors
Urinary tract infections are common in women, and many women experience more than one infection during their lifetimes. Risk factors specific to women for UTIs include:
• Female anatomy. A woman has a shorter urethra than a man does, which shortens the distance that bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
• Sexual activity. Sexually active women tend to have more UTIs than do women who aren’t sexually active. Having a new sexual partner also increases your risk.
• Certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms for birth control may be at higher risk, as well as women who use spermicidal agents.
• Menopause. After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more vulnerable to infection.
• Urinary tract abnormalities. Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTIs.
• Blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
• A suppressed immune system. Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system — the body’s defense against germs — can increase the risk of UTIs.
• Catheter use. People who can’t urinate on their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of UTIs. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.
• A recent urinary procedure. Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.

There could be complications
When treated promptly and properly, lower urinary tract infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences.
• Recurrent infections, especially in women who experience three or more UTIs.
• Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
• Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
• Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis, previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
• Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up your urinary tract to your kidneys.

Common tests employed
Tests and procedures used to diagnose urinary tract infections include:
• Analyzing a urine sample. Your doctor may ask for a urine sample for lab analysis to look for white blood cells, red blood cells or bacteria. To avoid potential contamination of the sample, you may be instructed to first wipe your genital area with an antiseptic pad and to collect the urine midstream.
• Growing urinary tract bacteria in a lab. Lab analysis of the urine is sometimes followed by a urine culture. This test tells your doctor what bacteria are causing your infection and which medications will be most effective.
• Creating images of your urinary tract. If you are having frequent infections that your doctor thinks may be caused by an abnormality in your urinary tract, you may have an ultrasound, a computerized tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Your doctor may also use a contrast dye to highlight structures in your urinary tract.
• Using a scope to see inside your bladder. If you have recurrent UTIs, your doctor may perform a cystoscopy, using a long, thin tube with a lens (cystoscope) to see inside your urethra and bladder. The cystoscope is inserted in your urethra and passed through to your bladder.

What are the drugs and treatment  used?
Antibiotics usually are the first line treatment for urinary tract infections. Which drugs are prescribed and for how long depend on your health condition and the type of bacteria found in your urine.

Simple infection
UTIs are normally treated with a short course of antibiotics.
Most women are given a three-day course of antibiotic capsules or tablets. Men, pregnant women and people with more serious symptoms may need a slightly longer course.
Your symptoms will normally pass within three to five days of starting treatment. But make sure you complete the whole course of antibiotics that you’ve been prescribed, even if you’re feeling better.
Over-the-counter painkillers such as paracetamol can help with any pain. Drinking plenty of fluids may also help you feel better.
Often, symptoms clear up within a few days of treatment. But you may need to continue antibiotics for a week or more. Take the entire course of antibiotics as prescribed.
For an uncomplicated UTI that occurs when you’re otherwise healthy, your doctor may recommend a shorter course of treatment, such as taking an antibiotic for one to three days. But whether this short course of treatment is enough to treat your infection depends on your particular symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may also prescribe a pain medication (analgesic) that numbs your bladder and urethra to relieve burning while urinating, but pain usually is relieved soon after starting an antibiotic. One common side effect of urinary tract analgesics is discolored urine — orange or red.

Frequent infections
If you have frequent UTIs, your doctor may make certain treatment recommendations, such as:
Low dose antibiotics, initially for six months but sometimes longer
Self-diagnosis and treatment, if you stay in touch with your doctor
A single dose of antibiotic after sexual intercourse if your infections are related to sexual activity
Vaginal estrogen therapy if you’re postmenopausal

Severe infection
For a severe UTI, you may need treatment with intravenous antibiotics in a hospital.

Lifestyle and home remedies
Urinary tract infections can be painful, but you can take steps to ease your discomfort until antibiotics treat the infection. Follow these tips:
• Drink plenty of water. Water helps to dilute your urine and flush out bacteria.
• Avoid drinks that may irritate your bladder. Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices or caffeine until your infection has cleared. They can irritate your bladder and tend to aggravate your frequent or urgent need to urinate.
• Use a heating pad. Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to your abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.
Also, you can use alternative methods . Many people drink cranberry juice to prevent UTIs, but there’s no proven evidence that cranberry juice works to treat or prevent infection. Researchers continue to study the ability of cranberry juice or tablets to prevent UTIs, but results aren’t conclusive.
If you enjoy drinking cranberry juice and feel it helps you, there’s little harm in it. Just watch the calories. For most people, drinking cranberry juice is safe, but some people report an upset stomach or diarrhea.
However, don’t drink cranberry juice if you’re taking blood-thinning medication, such as warfarin medications that affect the liver; or aspirin.

How to prevent UT
You can take these steps to reduce your risk of urinary tract infections:
• avoiding perfumed bubble bath, soap or talcum powder around your genitals – use plain, unperfumed varieties, and have a shower rather than a bath
• going to the toilet as soon as you need to pee and always emptying your bladder fully
• staying well hydrated
• wiping your bottom from front to back when you go to the toilet
• emptying your bladder as soon as possible after having sex
• not using a contraceptive diaphragm or condoms with spermicidal lubricant on them – you may wish to use another method of contraception instead
• wearing underwear made from cotton, rather than synthetic material such as nylon, and avoiding tight jeans and trousers.