Last week, we started a topic on Male hypogonadism. We discussed the definition, types andsomecauses. This week, we will continue with some of the primary and secondary causes of male hypogonadism and few signs and symptoms.

  • Hemochromatosis:This condition is characterized by excess of iron in the bloodstream. Hemoglobin, which is composed of both the heme (iron) and the globulin (protein) parts, is often the main component of the red blood cell. Too much iron in the blood may eventually cause the pituitary gland or the testicles to stop functioning properly, which may reduce the amount of testosterone that is produced.
  • Injury to the testes: The testes are vulnerable to damage since they are now in the scrotum. Any lesion or injury to the testicles may result in hypogonadism by stopping the entire testosterone hormone production. However, there may be a reduction in testosterone production if the damage is limited to one testis.
  • Cancer Treatment: Testes may malfunction as a result of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which are mostly used to treat cancer. Chemotherapy has been linked to decreased sperm and testosterone production, according to research. Even while these therapies are only temporary, nonetheless they have the potential to lead to long-term issues including infertility. Men who desire to receive chemotherapy have frequently been urged by doctors to try to preserve their sperm before the procedure is carried out.

Common causes of secondary male hypogonadism

In secondary male hypogonadism the main issues are not related to the testicles. However, the hypothalamus or the pituitary glands is the main problem. The causes of secondary male hypogonadism include:

  • Kallman’s Syndrome:This syndrome frequently occurs when a specific region of the brain known as the hypothalamus develops abnormally. The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland, which in turn triggers the release of chemicals like follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. In addition the patient may also develop problems with his eyes, which result in red-green color blindness, a person with this disease will also have trouble with his ability to smell normally, which will be impaired and result in anosmia.
  • Disorders of the Pituitary Gland: The release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland to the testes is impaired when there is a problem with the pituitary gland. As a result, testosterone production will be compromised. Any pituitary tumor or tumor in a brain region near the pituitary gland will result in hormonal imbalances, including low levels of testosterone. Sometimes, chemotherapy or surgery used to treat brain tumors can have an impact on the pituitary gland and result in hypogonadism.
  • Inflammation: Inflammatory diseases, such as histiocytosis, sarcoidosis, and tuberculosis, have a long-lasting impact on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, leading to issues. Once this happens, testosterone and other hormone production will be affected, which will cause hypogonadism and other related hormonal illnesses.
  • HIV/AIDS:HIV has several impacts, one of which is a significant decrease in testosterone levels. This is because, when left untreated, this condition may affect the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, testes, and other organs.
  • Obesity: Fat deposits in the arteries, including the testicular artery, occur when a person is very overweight or obese. These fat buildups have the potential to become blocked, thereby cutting off the blood supply to the testes and decreasing testosterone production.
  • Age: Typically, as people get older, less of everything is produced. Men also experience this. The production of testosterone gradually declines as people get older. But different guys experience the deterioration at different rates.


Male hypogonadism manifests differently depending on its stage of development. The bulk of hypogonadism often manifests in the fetus life. However, some of them could begin during puberty or even as an adult.


One of the crucial symptoms to watch for is the underdevelopment of the external sex organs once the body starts to struggle to produce testosterone during fetal development. The following traits could be present at birth in a child that is genetically expected to be a boy, though they vary depending on when the hypogonadism began and the level of testosterone produced. Some of these traits include:

  • Female genitalia
  • Ambiguous genitals, this kind of genitalia may not be seen to be as a male or a female type.
  • Severely underdeveloped male sex parts.

The majority of men who experience hypogonadism during this phase typically struggle to attain puberty. This implies that the child will have a delayed onset of puberty or that their sexual development would be inadequate or lacking. In other words, he would not get broad shoulders, a deep voice, muscle mass development, particularly in the shoulders, arms, thighs and legs, body and facial hair growth, testicular and penis growth or sperm production. Instead, the infant will begin to develop breast tissue, leading to the condition known as gynecomastia, as well as more arms and legs than trunk……………………………..TO BE CONTINUED

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