The Centre for Disease Control USA, estimates about 12% of women become infertile after just one episode of PID which is caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the vagina or cervix to the reproductive organs. WHO estimated that 448 Million new cases of individuals around the world suffers from Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) and may eventually be predisposed to PID. When not properly treated, may cause complications that have damaging effects on the female reproductive system usually hinder the eggs to pass through easily into the womb, preventing fertilization and hereby resulting to infertility. If a pregnancy does occur, complications are common as many as one in 10 post-PID pregnancies are ectopic.It can infect the uterine wall and cause miscarriages, and invade the ovaries and lead to early menopause.


Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious health problems if it is not treated. Syphilis is divided into stages (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary). There are different signs and symptoms associated with each stage. You can get syphilis by direct contact with a syphilis sore during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. You can find sores on or around the penis, vagina, or anus, or in the rectum, on the lips, or in the mouth. Syphilis can spread from an infected mother to her unborn baby

Syphilis is divided into stages (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary), with different signs and symptoms associated with each stage. A person with primary syphilis generally has a sore or sores at the original site of infection. These sores usually occur on or around the genitals, around the anus or in the rectum, or in or around the mouth. These sores are usually (but not always) firm, round, and painless. Symptoms of secondary syphilis include skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, and fever. The signs and symptoms of primary and secondary syphilis can be mild, and they might not be noticed. During the latent stage, there are no signs or symptoms. Tertiary syphilis is associated with severe medical problems. A doctor can usually diagnose tertiary syphilis with the help of multiple tests. It can affect the heart, brain, and other organs of the body

The only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If you are sexually active, you can lower your chances of getting syphilis by staying in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested for syphilis and does not have it

Using latex condom correctly every time you have sex. Condoms prevent transmission of syphilis by preventing contact with a sore. Sometimes sores occur in areas not covered by a condom. Contact with these sores can still transmit syphilis

Any sexually active person can get syphilis through unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex. All pregnant women should be tested for syphilis at their first prenatal visit. You should get tested regularly for syphilis if you are sexually active and are a man who has sex with men, are living with HIV, or have partner(s) who have tested positive for syphilis.


HIV is an infection called the human immunodeficiency virus. It interferes with the body’s metabolic system to fight off viruses, bacteria and fungi that cause illness, and when chronic lead to AIDS, a life-threatening disease. When an individual is first infected, there are likely to not possess any symptoms. While some people develop a flu-like illness, usually two to six weeks after being infected others do not. But that is not a sure factor to determine when infected, still, the only way you know if one has HIV, is to be tested.

There is some suggestion that, like herpes, HIV can affect sperm health. That said, there are assisted reproduction options that can make having children when HIV positive much safer. HIV infection doesn’t mean having to give up the dream of having a child of your own.

Few of these have been related to Early HIV signs and symptoms and they include: Fever, headache, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, rash, fatigue, cough and shortness of breath. Some of these early signs and symptoms usually disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken for those of another viral infection. During this period, one is highly infectious.


Trichomoniasis is a common infection caused by a one-celled parasite, usually microscopic called Trichomonas vaginalis. This disease usually spreads during sexual intercourse with someone who already has the infection.

It usually infects the urinary tract in men and infects the vagina in women, but often causes no symptoms. When symptoms arise, they may appear within five to twenty eight days of exposure and range from mild infection to severe inflammation.

Signs and symptoms may include: Clear, white, greenish or yellowish vaginal discharge, strong vaginal odour, vaginal itching, discharge from the penis, irritation around the penis, pain during sexual intercourse, painful urination


Mycoplasma is a microscopic free-living bacterium and can cause disease in humans. When women with PID have neither gonorrhea nor chlamydia, they probably have mycoplasma. Estimate shows that it is even more common than gonorrhea. Mycoplasma infections have been associated with PID and infertility in women, although not as often as chlamydia or gonorrhea. There is also some evidence suggesting that mycoplasma may lead to reduced fertility in men.


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