Real Madrid remain eight points adrift of Barcelona at the top of La Liga after failing to break down Athletic Bilbao in a 0-0 stalemate as captain Sergio Ramos saw the 24th red card of his career.
Earlier, Celta Vigo became the first team this season to take points off Barcelona at the Nou Camp in a thrilling 2-2 draw.
Atletico Madrid took advantage of Barcaâ€™s stumble as Antoine Griezmannâ€™s winner against his former club two minutes from time earned a hard-fought 2-1 win over Real Sociedad to move to within six points of the leaders.
Real are now tied for fourth with Sevilla, who beat Deportivo la Coruna 2-0 on the day their coach Eduardo Berizzo was released from hospital just four days after undergoing an operation on a cancerous prostate tumour.
Celta have been a bogey side for Barca in recent years, beating the Catalans once in each of the past three seasons.
A positive start from the Galicians on Celta boss Juan Carlos Unzueâ€™s return to the Camp Nou, where he spent three years as Luis Enriqueâ€™s assistant, was rewarded 20 minutes in when Aspas tapped home on the rebound after a stunning save from Marc-Andre ter Stegen had denied Maxi Gomez.
Celtaâ€™s lead lasted two minutes, though, as Messi latched onto Paulinhoâ€™s pass to fire low under Ruben Blanco for his first goal since late October.
Messi then took control of the game as Barca pressed and finally broke Celtaâ€™s resistence just after the hour when his pass freed Jordi Alba to tee up Suarez for his first goal at the Camp Nou in nearly three months.
An end-to-end encounter swung back Celtaâ€™s way in a double blow for Barca. Umtiti pulled up with a hamstring problem that will keep him out for eight weeks as he chased Aspas down the right and the Spanish international then patiently picked out Gomez to fire into an unguarded net.
â€œIt was a series of unfortunate incidents in the one move,â€ lamented Valverde. â€œAbove all for the injury to Samuel than to give away the goal.â€
However, a bad day for Barca wasnâ€™t compounded by Real cutting the gap at the top as the European champions failed to score for the third time in their last nine La Liga games in a game short of clear-cut chances in Bilbao.
And Madrid had to see out the final five minutes with 10 men when Ramos saw red for a second bookable offence when he led with his arm in an aerial duel with Aduriz meaning he will miss the visit of his former side Sevilla to the Santiago Bernabeu next weekend.
Unlike their local rivals, Atletico closed in on Barca with their first La Liga win at their new Wanda Metropolitano home since September as Griezmannâ€™s return to form continued.
Diego Simeoneâ€™s men needed to do it the hard way, though, as they conceded for the first time in five games when Jan Oblak brought down Mikel Oyarzabal inside the area and Willian Jose blasted home from the penalty spot.
Scoring goals has been Atleticoâ€™s problem this season, but they found a breakthrough from an unlikely source when left-back Filipe Luis cut onto his right foot to find the bottom corner 27 minutes from time.
However, Griezmannâ€™s bravery was rewarded with a fourth goal in three games when he slid in to meet Saulâ€™s looping header despite being sandwiched between a Sociedad defender and the far post.